Type

Publication

**Abstract**: Radio-interferometry (RI) observes the sky at unprecedented angular resolutions, enabling the study of several far-away galactic objects such as galaxies and black holes. In RI, an array of antennas probes cosmic signals coming from the observed region of the sky. The covariance matrix of the vector gathering all these antenna measurements offers, by leveraging the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, an incomplete and noisy Fourier sensing of the image of interest. The number of noisy Fourier measurements – or visibilities – scales as \(\mathcal O(Q^2B)\) for \(Q\) antennas and \(B\) short-time integration (STI) intervals. We address the challenges posed by this vast volume of data, which is anticipated to increase significantly with the advent of large antenna arrays, by proposing a compressive sensing technique applied directly at the level of the antenna measurements. First, this paper shows that beamforming – a common technique of dephasing antenna signals – usually used to focus some region of the sky, is equivalent to sensing a rank-one projection (ROP) of the signal covariance matrix. We build upon our recent work arXiv:2306.12698v3 [eess.IV] to propose a compressive sensing scheme relying on random beamforming, trading the $Q^2$-dependence of the data size for a smaller number \(N_{\mathrm p}\) ROPs. We provide image recovery guarantees for sparse image reconstruction. Secondly, the data size is made independent of \(B\) by applying \(N_{\mathrm m}\) Bernoulli modulations of the ROP vectors obtained for the STI. The resulting sample complexities, theoretically derived in a simpler case without modulations and numerically obtained in phase transition diagrams, are shown to scale as \(\mathcal O(K)\) where \(K\) is the image sparsity. This illustrates the potential of the approach.